A study to compare between DAX and CT scan to diagnose osteoporosis in elderly women ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 2 ABSTRACT.. 3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 7 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.. 8 1.0 Overview.. 8 1.1 Statement of the Problem.. 9 1.2 Research Question. 9 1.3 Aims and Objectives. 10 1.4 Importance of this Review.. 10 1.5 Summary. 10 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW… 12 2.0 Overview.. 12 2.1 Ultrasonography: A Major Advance in Healthcare Practice. 12 2.2 The Prevalence of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 13 2.2.1 Signs and Symptoms of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 14 2.2.2 Factors Predisposing Sonographers to WRMSD.. 15 2.2.3 Preventing the Onset and Reducing the Severity of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 18 2.2.3.1 Risk Assessments. 18 2.2.3.2 Ultrasound Equipment 18 2.2.3.3 Education. 18 2.2.3.4 The Work Environment 19 2.3 Summary. 19 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY.. 20 3.0 Overview.. 20 3.1 Criteria for Formulating the Research Question. 20 3.2 Study Design. 22 3.3 The Search Strategy and Study Selection. 25 3.4 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. 26 3.5 Final Study Selection. 27 3.6 Data Extraction. 27 3.7 Quality of the Chosen Studies. 28 3.8 Summary. 29 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS. 30 4.0 Overview.. 30 4.1 Study Selection. 30 4.2 Quality Assessment of the Chosen Studies. 33 4.3 Characteristics of the Selected Studies. 33 4.4 Prevalence and Development of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 37 4.4.1 Techniques and Protocols. 38 4.4.2 Sample Size and Correlations. 38 4.5 Factors Influencing WRMSDs in Sonographers. 40 4.6 Summary. 43 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION.. 44 5.0 Overview.. 44 5.1 Summary of the Evidence. 44 5.2 Limitations. 46 5.3 Findings within the Context of the Current Evidence. 47 5.4 Research Recommendations. 48 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION.. 50 References. 51 Appendices. 57 List of Tables 22 Defined Elements of the PIO Framework Used for this Research Study……. 3.1 32 Examples of Reasons for Exclusion of Studies……………………………… 4.1 35 Characteristics of the Selected Studies……………………………………… 4.2 List of Figures 31 The Study Selection Process using the PRISMA Statement………………. 4.1 40 Total Sample Size and Distribution Across and Within All Six Papers…… 4.2 List of Appendices Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)….………………………….…… 57 muscle pain, which is an indicator of various diseases and disorders. 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