1. The role of personal selling within the overall marketing strategy
    • How personal selling supports the promotion mix

The important components of a promotional mix include sales promotion, personal, selling, public relation, and advertising. The advertising aspect involves an impersonal representation of a product or service about its merits, price, and its availability as given by the producer (Blythe 2009, p.152). Sales promotion, on the other hand, entails the use of incentives and other related promotional operations that stimulate the customer to purchase the product. Personal selling implies a personal type of selling, that involve face-to-face relationship between seller and buyer for the aim of sale. Public relations involve sustaining relations with the public.

Personal selling supports other elements in the promotional mix. Notably, personal selling supports advertising by facilitating direct advertising (Blythe 2009, p.157). The type of advertising facilitated by personal selling is coercive one, in that the sales representative is able to address questions from clients with faster response. Advertising at Johnson Brothers Limited is facilitated by not only though the word of mouth, but also through body language and tone. Some customers usually buy products because of the way the sales representative as represented himself or herself (Cespedes 2014, p.114). Noticeably, personal selling enables the sale representative at Johnson Brothers Limited to identify the missing needs of the customer, and would adjust it immediately during advertising.

On the other hand, personal selling facilitates sales promotion. Sales promotion using television and other media cannot be effective as compared to when it is done in personal selling. In sales promotion, the sales representative is able to use personal selling to negotiate over the use of incentives such as bonuses and discounts upon purchasing a product (Clay & Clay 2013 p.103). For instance, the representative at Johnson Brothers Limited can lure the client into impulsive buying by temporarily changing the terms of the game. The representatives can tell the client that the customer can get a half discount on the product if the clients purchases more than 100 items. Remarkably, personal selling enables enhancement of public relations (Catano, 2009, p.112). A sales representative can in the process of selling products remind the client that the visions of the Johnson Brothers Limited is to make the customer their king. This will ensure that the client feel appreciated to buy at the Johnson Brothers Limited. In addition, the appreciated client will spread the good news of Johnson Brothers Limited to other people that the respective company takes customer as priority. This will bring more and more clients to increase sales and profits. According to Clay & Clay (2013 p.113) personal selling supports public relations by projecting such characteristics such as cooperation and empathy that reflects organizational culture of Johnson Brothers Limited.

However, the use of personal selling at Johnson Brothers Limited can be made effective by following certain recommendations. One of the recommendations that need to be observed is that when advertising and promotion, the sale representative should relate past product successes (Compton, Morrissey & Nankervis 2009, p.241). Many customer fears to buy advertised plastic products because they do not know of the results advertised will be realized after the purchase. Johnson Brothers Limited should also instill a follow up culture after using personal selling in the other promotional mix elements. This should be done especially to new clients. This continues to remind the client that Johnson Brothers Limited value their customers very much, and would provide quality products to them (Cespedes 2014, p.116). It also indicates that the company is available to meet another needs the clients may want to be assisted. The final recommendation that need to be undertaken by Johnson Brothers Limited is to allow the customer participate in the persuasion. (Blythe 2009, p.168) argues that many sales people believe that the most form of persuasion is one that gives the client little time to complain or place suggestions. The authors add that the sales representatives will assume some of the questions answered by the clients rather than telling the customers that the product is the beast. Therefore, it is advisable for Johnson Brothers Limited to train heir sales representative on the importance of listening to clients queries (Clay & Clay 2013 p.135). When this is done, customers will see that the motive behind the sale strategy is to not only sell, but to t also adhere to their problems.

  • Comparison between buyer behavior and the decision making process in different situations

A buyer behavior is the deliberative process used by consumers to hunt, choose, buy, apply, and dispose of goods and services in the respective satisfaction of their needs and wants (Cespedes 2014, p.123). There is a great difference between Consumer buying behavior (B2C) and Business/Organizational buying behavior (B2B). B2C entails converting shoppers to actual buyers as aggressively and consistently as required. It is mainly product driven. In this case, Johnson Brothers Limited uses such merchandising activities as displays and coupons to lure the target. The B2C buyer, thus, looks for affordable products. Buyer behavior is hence modeled through imagery and repetition (Catano, 2009, p.117). B2B, on the hand, entails to form correlations between Johnson Brothers Limited and its customers. Therefore, the most important aspect in B2B is the logic behind the product. Johnson Brothers Limited engages in B2B by focusing on the features of the products .brand identity is important to create personal relationships. Therefore, it is relationship driven. Relations are formed in B2B than in B2C. this is because the motive behind B2B is long timed while the aim in the B2C is usually short-term timed.

B2BB2C
The process is longerThe process is shorter
Sales decisions are made behind closed doorsSales decisions are made in front of sale people
Many parties used in the processLess people are used in the DMP
Sales people are not involved in the process and cannot influence the buying processSales people influence the consumer buying process
It is based trust and mutual relationshipBased on promotion and advertising

Table1: The differences in DMP between B2B and B2C (Catano, 2009, p.134)

The above differences are important to helping sale representative at Johnson Brothers Limited to design which of them to use to get the targeted market. If the motive is to establish the relationship, the company can use B2B, and if is to sell the product, the company has to use B2C.

  • The role of sales teams within their marketing strategy

A marketing strategy at Johnson Brothers Limited makes it to align comprehensively its corporate sale strategies and corporate objectives. It is a marketing strategy is to increase customer loyalty to increase sales and profits (Jobber & Lancaster 2011, p.98). It uses SWOT analysis to identify its core competencies and align them towards market conditions in gaining more market share. Each member of the sales team at Johnson Brothers Limited has assigned roles. Each role is dependent on different kind of plastics. The sales teams are mandated to improve sales about each age group (Cespedes 2014, p.157). The role of the sales team at Johnson Brothers Limited is to boost customer satisfaction by giving the clients more information about how products help them. The respective customers want to be convinced that the products by Johnson Brothers Limited are of high quality. This is related from the recent recession, which can make clients think that Johnson Brothers Limited can sell poor products to make money. Once a marketing segment is determined, each member of the sales tram handles sales in his or her area (Jordan & Vazzana 2012, p.105). Each one contribution is crucial in the group. In addition, the sales team increase brand awareness through advertising and promotion. The sales team also acts a bridge between Johnson Brothers Limited and customers by addressing queries from the vast customer pool (Catano, 2009, p.136). The sales team at Johnson Brothers Limited set SMART objectives: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-sensitive. The strategy being specific means that Johnson Brothers Limited aims at providing the fleets of cars to the personal customers and other businesses in the region. The strategy will be measurable by evaluating how many new and second-hand cars are sold during a specified period. The sales strategy of the company is achievable because the recession is long gone, and it will be able to maintain and service cars for diversified customer pool in the London Borough. In addition, the strategy is realistic since there is a demand for cars in the region. Finally, the sales strategy is time-sensitive since the recession has ceased and the demand for its services matches the time. The sale strategy also encompasses on the sales channel to be used to access the buyers. However, the roles of the sales team at Johnson Brothers Limited can be made effective by carrying out market research to identify potential problems affecting the people. Therefore, the team will have answers to them fingertips when the clients visit its respective stores. This is because the sales team is mandated by the Johnson Brothers Limited to generate income and revenue for the company (Cespedes 2014, p.143). Thus, addressing client’s questions on time means that positive correlations will be installed, which will bring increased sales and profits. In conclusion, it can be correlated that an efficient sales team is accountable for marketing of a company. In emphasis, the sales team at Johnson Brothers Limited needs to be trained and retrained to meet the expectation of the market such as utilization of marketing strategies.

  1. Principles of the selling process to a product/service
  2. The role and objectives of sales management

3.1 How sales strategies are developed in line with corporate objectives

A corporate objective is a goal set by an organization to keep it a firm ground in realizing its visions and missions. Corporate objectives intend to give the company a strategic direction towards accomplishing its aims. Plastic Products Ltd. sets some corporate objectives (Lamb, Hair & Mcdaniel 2013, p.178). One of the objectives is improving customer loyalty. The company also has a corporate objective to give clients products and services worth their money. Sale strategies at the company are devised to assist it outsell its competitors. The process of developing a sale strategy starts by indulging the top management in the planning sessions (Jordan & Vazzana 2012, p.114). The next step is to communicate the objectives of the corporate strategy to the employees in a simple way. The third step is to communicate the objective itself to the employees. The final step is to promise the employers rewards after executing and making the corporate sales objectives fruitful (Jobber & Lancaster 2011, p.123). The importance of making sure that company’s corporate objectives align with the sales objectives is that it makes the company avoid conflicts with processes, customers, and resources.

Aligning corporate objectives with sales strategies is important because it enables the company to indulge sales team in planning for the company to get information on the best method to execute a strategy. Incentives are pertinent in making sure that corporate strategies are aligned to sales strategies (Catano, 2009, p.165). This is because employees are motivated towards executing the strategies to their fullest. In conclusion, aligning sales strategy and corporate objectives enable Plastic Products Limited realize its missions with ease to enable it enjoy increased profits.

3.2 The role of recruitments and selection procedure

Recruitment and selection are two intermittent phases of employment. Recruitment predominantly involves searching candidates to apply for job vacancies in the organization. On the other hand, selection involves choosing the right person to fill a vacancy (Cespedes 2014, p.176). A recruitment procedure at Plastic Products Limited will have indispensable advantages. One of them is that the company it instills employee retention culture in a company. Employee retention is important since knowledge is sustained within the organization, and time is not wasted in recruiting other employees. Effective recruitment policy will be important to snatch most promising employees from the job market (Lamb, Hair & Mcdaniel 2013, p.232). At Plastic Products Limited, internal referral will be recommended because they are conversant with the product under sale. The other advantage associated with recruitment policy at Plastic Products Limited is that it enables the company has a wide range of possible avenue to get recruiters ranging from campus hiring, social media-based hiring, and web Job sources. Observably, effective recruitment policy enables Plastic Products Limited, not only saves itself from current employment situation, but also prepare for future considerations (Jordan & Vazzana 2012, p.146). For instance, the company can keep the names of the chosen but unselected employees for future recruitment.

Effective selection is important at the company, as it will create loyalty and productivity. Having loyal employees mean that there will be robust innovations, increased profits, and generation of competitive products. Notably, effective selection policy at Plastic Products Limited eliminates the occurrence of personal problems. For instance, the company will be able to fight employee turnover, monotony, and absenteeism (Clay & Clay 2013 p.150). The selected employees will be contended by the work, thereby making labor relations better. Plastic Product Limited can use internal section, where employees suggest the most promising sales manager can drive the sales wheel forward.

3.3 The role of motivation, remuneration, and training in sales management.

Motivating employees is very pertinent in sales management. It involves giving bonuses and gifts after employees have achieved outstanding performance. Motivation is important in making employees take action when executing sale strategies at Plastic Products Limited. Motivating employees makes them never give up when faced with a challenge during sale marketing. The role of remuneration is that, being money paid to employees, it makes employees make the personal contribution to the sale strategy implementation (Kotler, Armstrong &Harris 2013, p.145). Remuneration is defined by Kotler, Armstrong & Harris (2013) as the paying the employees due compensation commensurable to the be done. A large personal input gives that the salesperson influences the amount of the sale or profit positively. Rewarding employees after making sales make them feel appreciated, and this will increase their sale performance (Lamb, Hair & Mcdaniel 2013, p.256). Maslow Hierarchy of Needs who argues that employees can be motivated by personal gifts in chasing organization’s goals gives this. Training has indispensable effects on sales performance at Plastic Products Limited. Training is being said Jordan & Vazzana (2012, p.158) who argues that it is the process aimed at providing employees with additional skills and expertise to handle work situations. The reason for this importance is that training gives employees the necessary tools to evaluate situational and interpersonal issues that bring doldrums to achieving sales performance (Cespedes 2014, p.167). Training is also crucial at Plastic Products Limited because it develops employee motivation, creativity, and morale. Training enables sales team to correlate sales strategies with corporate objectives of Plastic Products

3.4 How sales management organizes sales activity and control sales output

The sales manager organizes sales activities depending on the size of the sales such that the larger the size, the more sales activities will be dispensed. In addition, if the structure of the sales force is concentrated in one area with the consumers, the sales activities are more likely to be many and robust. However, if the call frequency is low, the sale activity will constitute of minimal activities since no urgent orders are demanded. The sales manager can control sales output using budget and time of sending the output (Lamb, Hair & Mcdaniel 2013, p.298). The sales manager at Plastic Products Limited can make the time of sending the output to be immediately in a batch. For instance, if order confirmation for a customer is designated to be printed in a batch, but the client demands it immediately, the sales manager can change the time of dispatch in the sales order. Budget, on the other hand, provides the possible output to be released that period, and the sales manager can restrict himself or herself as given by the budget. Therefore, the sales manager measures the sales performance with the output level given by the budget (Cespedes 2014, p.189). In controlling the sales force, the sale manager at Plastic Products Limited has to cut down the expenses of traveling and time. Therefore, the sale activity at the company must correlate with the volume output to be sold as well as maintain the maximum profits.

3.5 The use of databases for effective sales management

The databases are used to manage customer data and sales information, which is designed to improve Plastic Products Limited sales performance. Databases are used to keep data of customers and the respective company tracking sales. The Transacting Processing Systems is a type of IT solutions used by Plastic Products Limited to it monitors’, gathers, and processes data for all routine main business transactions at the company (Cespedes 2014, p.190). Plastic Products Limited to let customers order status as well as allowing them to order services online through personalized web pages utilize Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The company can mass CRM effectively by having senior management. Contact management system is used by Plastic Product Limited to track all contacts that have made with a particular client. The system also assists Plastic Products Limited to follow up the customer.

The importance of contact management system is that it enables the company not to duplicate sales efforts to avoid annoying the customers. The system can improve the effectiveness of sales management by making it personalized for the company to allow customers to spearhead follow up (Shepherd 2012). The disadvantages of using such systems are that too much time is used on data entry. Notably, in the process of automation, Plastic Products Company loses the personal touch. The benefits of such systems are that field sales team can send their data more often. In addition, there is maximum customer satisfaction since the product that is made matches customer satisfaction (Patil 2011). For instance, the Club Card is used to reward clients every time they buy from the company. Observably, productivity increase since the sales force utilizes their time more efficiently and effectively. Plastic Products Limited can build a competitive edge since it produces goods that are of high quality.

  1. Planning a sales activity for a product or service

4.1 A sales plan for one of the products at Toys R Us Ltd (UK)

Sales vision                                                                                                                                         

To be the leading distributor of plastic products nationally producing $6M annually and getting ROI (return on investment) of approximately $400K/year
Mission
The customer is the king
Objectives

  1. To boostsales by 50%
  2. Increasethenumber of activeaccounts from 50-65.

Strategies

  1. Lead my salesteam to invitethecurrent prospectivecustomers in themove to cross-sell our fullrange of productsofferings
  2. Apply CRM andACT to exceed my objectivesoroutgoingcalling, appointment scheduling, andproposalaims.
    Actions
  3. I will develop sales presentation comprising revised sales value proposition.
  4. I will exhaust account analysis by 2015.
  • . I will add my pool of sales team before the end of the Q2.
  1. . I will schedule four sitevisits to be donetwice in a month with majorprospects to existingclients.

Key performance indicators

  1. I will use weekly unit sales analysis to see how much the company has earned in that week.
  2. Thenumber of newcustomer’scontacts
  3. Contact to conversionratio will be used to offerhelp to the customer along theway.
    • Opportunities for selling internationally

Selling beyond the see will imply that Toys R Us Ltd (UK) will have a large pool of customer with a large ROI. Selling products to the MINT countries implies that untapped market will be gained (Lamb, Hair & Mcdaniel 2013, p.304). The advantage that Toys R Us Ltd (UK) will have in opting business in the MINT region is that it will have an investment on the high growing economy. The PESTEL analysis of the MINT region indicates that the government has favorable regulations and terms to any investor wanting to invest in their respective region. However, PEST analysis indicates that the economy of the MINT region is not stable and is affected by political instabilities (Riley 2012). Toys R Us Ltd (UK) can sell internationally by using joint ventures. The importance of joint ventures is that risk will be shared among the parties.

In addition, the joint venture will enable Toys R Us Ltd (UK) to establish and maintain resource commitments with the customers in the region. The other avenue in which Toys R Us Ltd (UK) can sell internationally is by using agents in the MINT region (Morgan 2013, p.3). This is because agents are comprehensively aware of the region, and would give information on how the company will execute its sales strategies. However, the best method that can be used by Toys R Us Ltd (UK) to sell overseas is by selling directly. The implication of this medium is that it will be able to deal with shortcomings from transportation and logistics such as high taxes (Lytle 2011, p.132). Using services such e-commerce website, Toys R Us Ltd (UK) will be to make periodic sales achieve cost-effectiveness.

  • Chances for manipulating exhibitions or trade fairs

Benefits of an exhibition to Toys R Us Ltd (UK) are that it can follow up sales leads, debrief, and stand staff afterward. Another related benefit is that Toys R Us Ltd (UK) it will have selected a show with the right target audience attending. However, challenges of an exhibition to the Toys R Us Ltd (UK) is that expenditures are incurred when attending the exhibitions not forgetting that competition never lacks in all shows. To evade the shortcomings from those exhibitions, Toys R Us Ltd (UK) should have a complete product literature to take full advantage of the show. In addition, Toys R Us Ltd (UK) needs to capture the attention of contacts of the available people (Kotler, Armstrong & Harris 2013, p.123). Toys R Us Ltd (UK)can the opportunity of exhibitions by having a comprehensive ,list of prospects and clients it needs to obtain to generate ROI.

Therefore, Oversees trade fairs and exhibition are important to Toys R Us Ltd (UK) since it will enable the company finds prospective clients. The company will engage in product demonstration whereby it will attendants will be allowed to touch, hear, and feel products (Markgraf 2012, p.1). The importance behind this situation is that brand development is speeded in the emerging markets. A preferable type of trade fair the Toys R Us Ltd (UK) should engage in is International trade fair, for instance, in the MINT region where there are emerging markets (Lakhotia 2013). The reason for recommending this type is that it will be able to reach potential customers in more than one country. The connection and networks established during this type of exhibition are permanent. The company is able to use these connections to improve sales. International fairs and exhibitions are important because the company will be able to get into contact with varied knowledge and innovation from different business people in the world.