Psychology – Senior Seminar

Student Name

University Affiliation

Sex and other “addictions”

Sex addition, commonly referred as the” hypersexual disorder”, is a compulsive behavior that lender a person to incur preoccupation with sex-related thoughts, feelings as well as actions. Consequently, it has adverse effects on relationships, careers as well as physical and mental health and wellness. However, despite the addiction having been noted to cause harm, it is yet to have a valid diagnosis due to several reasons. Firstly, it does not explain the brain variances in exposure to sexual stimulus; therefore, it is classified as high libido other than a disorder. Moreover, there is insufficient negative consequences resulting from the sexual addiction that otherwise qualify it as a psychiatry disorder. Yet again, sex addiction is purely based on subjective moral and social values and not on scientific evidence, which culminates the invalid diagnosis (In Rosenberg & In Feder, 2014).

Generally, there are two main views on sexual addiction; one that supports hypersexuality as a disorders and one that refutes that view. However, it is clear that Carnes has a moral agenda to help those currently affected by this compulsive behavior to have control over their sexual life. Agreeably, most scholars accept there is a problem with excessive sex-related behavior but the figures suggested by Carnes are blown out of proportion. Therefore, that there exist hypersexuality negative effects validates his moral agenda. On the other hand, Siegel’s objections to hypersexual addiction are not acceptable and reasonable since they are reactive and subjective. Particularly, referring to daily masturbation as normal healthy routine is not convincing to disqualify the term sex addiction.

Notably, sex addiction, internet gaming disorder and gender dysphoria are all behavioral addictions unlike drugs and alcohol. Moreover, these addictions are connected to the technology in one way since they involve internet be it in watching porn and having an affair, online poker or dysphoria. As such, they are heightened by quick and easy access availed by technology on personal computers and phones.

References

In Rosenberg, K. P., & In Feder, L. C. (2014). Behavioral addictions: Criteria, evidence, and treatment.

Psychology – Assessment and Testing

Student Name

University Affiliation

History of Psychology – Assessment and Testing

Psychological assessment compasses combination of several techniques to aid in making accurate hypothetical view about a person, behavior, personality as well as capabilities. In early 1800s, brass instruments were widely used in the psychological testing of sensory thresholds and reaction time (Richard & Huprich, 2008). However, these instruments were unreliable in measuring intelligence. Later, psychological testing shifted attention towards practical measures such as mental testing, particularly in the 1890. Yet again, mental testing yielded unreliable results. As such, psychologists opted for other measures that would lead to accurate and reliable results. Hence, such measures as the factor analysis, projective tests and personality inventories were became the norm between the years 1920-1940 (Gregory, 2011). Some of the leading psychologist at the time included Henry Murray, who invested the Thematic Apperception Test.

Between 1940 and today, psychological testing and assessment has seen adoption of technology in most aspects of psychology field. Resultantly, reliability and accuracy of the psychological tests have significantly increased. Indeed, some of the psychological tests have been ingrained in assessing employees during interviews, improving their productivity and learning about their temperaments. Moreover, managing employees with anger and interpersonal challenges has been successful due to use of technology and reliable assessment techniques. Particularly, there are several assessments that are often applied in workplace; they include personality assessments, behavioral assessment and emotional intelligence tests. In regard to emotional intelligence at work place, such techniques as the Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment-Workplace (MEIA-W) are applied (Parker, Saklofske & Stough, 2009). Consequently, it has led to valid and reliable projection of job performance in relation to employees’ capabilities. Historically, assessment has been based on traditional psychological theories and psychometric measures. However, in the future assessments will skew towards evidence based testing. Additionally, there will be more automation and technology consumption in all settings of psychological testing and assessments.

References

Gregory, R. J. (2011). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Parker, J. D. A., Saklofske, D. H., & Stough, C. (2009). Assessing Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Research, and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer-Verlag US

Richard, D. C. S., & Huprich, S. K. (2008). Clinical Psychology: Assessment, Treatment, and Research. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Psychology – Assessment and Testing

Student Name

University Affiliation

Conclusion

There is enough evidence to justify that the results obtained were valid, reliable and relevant to the research. For instance, the client exhibited good effort and was conformable throughout the tests and sessions. Moreover, that there were range of tests such as sentence completion, perpetual reasoning and speed tests helped in establishing consistency on client issues. However, there are contradictions regarding to clients response; particularly in regard to referral question. More specifically, the client had difficulty in responding to the projective tests on account that she was worried she would give incorrect answers. Moreover, despite that the she exhibited good progress in speed tasks; there were few errors due to range of club activities undertaken earlier on. This is major setback since it was difficult to track the progress in club activities undertaken in effort to map a particular interest. Overall, the most relevant information to the referral question is the openness about the client to history and present concerns considering that sessions were self-referred. As such, information on activities and loss of interest on current job is essential on presumption that the client is seeking to improve her general well being.

Generally, there are a several limitations to the extent of reliability and validity on results obtained from the client. Firstly, that she multitasked in club activities might obscure the consistency and performance on particular activities. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on few major interests to make valid results when analyzing her interests. Additionally, that she was afraid to respond to projective tests inhibit her performance. Therefore, making recommendations based on these tests would lead to ineffective intervention. Hence, projective should be administered continually until the client exhibit constant performance to make the right intervention.

Overall, it is important to recognize that the case is a self-referral; therefore, the client has a motive to give valid information. As such, the psychologist needs to follow the client’s lead. Additionally, the sentence completion tests show that the client is concerned about her welfare and those of people around her. For instance, sentences such “I wonder when I will be happy again, some people regret about their career choices and my parents worry too much” sampled from the tests is consistent with her loss of interest in her job. Therefore, it is important to use this evidence to help her find a career that would spark interest.

Recommendations

The information available from the sessions and tests administered on the client is sufficient to come up with effective intervention plan. Notably, results are consistent with the evidence based practice. For instance, that the client has previously engaged on many club activities indicate a struggle to find source of interest. Therefore, the clinician applied her expertise to this specific case and client’s issues rather than applying general principles (Sturmey & Hersen, 2012).However, too many activities may drain energy and obscure the most interesting activity among many. As such, there should be a balance in recreation and career to clearly identify psychological adjustments. Additionally, the client has several stressors extrapolated from the sentence completion test; she worries about the future and her parents which may inhibit her productivity. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on self concept, esteem and identity to clear correspond values and beliefs to a career that would bring interest and happiness.

Reflection

There is range of tests that were conducted that proofed quite useful in client diagnosis in the entire process. In the first category, sentence completion tests provided information on immediate concerns of the client such as happiness and stressors such as poor career choice. Secondly, perpetual reasoning and arithmetic tests were useful in determining cognitive skills that could be related with the current career to determine whether it is over or under demanding on client’s potential. Additionally, non-verbal cues came in handy to ascertain the adjustments and concerns of the client. However, information on the client’s parents would have been important to understand why she noted in her sentence completion tests that they worry too much. This would be obtained by seeking from the clients whether she considered her parents as role model and whether she admired their careers. Generally, the process has been instrumental in helping in understand self through activities and tests. Nonetheless, it would be fulfilling to understand how environment affect person’s happiness and interests in future studies.

References

Sturmey, P., & Hersen, Michel. (2012). Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Child and Adolescent Disorders. Wiley.

Draft of Conclusions, Recommendations, and Reflection

Kimberly S. Beggs

Southern New Hampshire University

Considering all test results, I am highly confident in the results due to various justifications. Barbara willingly gave information regarding her and cooperated to enable the assessor make an accurate conclusion concerning her condition. All the required information was furthermore collected in an organized format during assessment and an adequate intervention plan was then established. Several questions were also asked to fit Barbara’s concerns before a concrete analysis was determined (Diz-Sotelo, 2016).The clinician also engaged the use of pictorial illustrations, which were effective in helping Barbara in self-expression. All the tests administered by the clinican were properly administered and the code of ethics was properly applied in the testing of Barbara. Therefore, the results of the tests and analysis carried out reflected the true condition of the patient.

A number of common themes and contradictions appeared in these results. One common theme in the results was the behavior of Barbara during the evaluation, which showed that Barbara was comfortable with the interview and was cooperative. Another common theme is the artistic inclination of the patient, which was determined through different tests that the patient underwent. (Diaz-Sotelo, 2016).The results also revealed the organizing and reasoning capacity as well as other skills that Barbara possesses. However, a few contradictions occurred from these results such as the fact that Barbara decided to undertake assessment for functioning capacity yet the results reveal that she has no coordinative difficulties it is therefore difficult to understand what Barbara’s particular areas of weaknesses are.

The assessment reveals a number of limitations and issues concerning the reliability and viability of these results. It would be necessary to make additional assessments to come up with a more valid and applicable solution. Improving reliability and viability of these results would require one way of ensuring accurate results would be by testing and retesting to evaluate the validity of the test results and confirm accuracy. It would also be effective if the clinician administered different versions of the test on the same person (Diaz-Sotelo-2016). The scores from these two tests would then be compared to confirm or reject the validity of such test results. If these two results were similar and consistent, it would reveal that the test was accurately carried out. Another method of confirming the validity of the results from the test would include different clinicians carrying out the same test on the patient. If the results from both tests were similar would confirm the validity of the test.

The evidence I would have for the psychologist would involve advising the psychologist to make a neuropsychological examination to get a proper analysis of Barbara. In such a scenario, I would also inform the psychologist of any behavioral irregularities that the patient exhibits in a social setting. To make a valid diagnosis of the patient, the clinician would have to receive all the proper information concerning the patient (Diaz-Sotelo-2016).Concerning this particular case study, I would conclude that, though much data concerning the patient has been collected, it is not sufficient to make a proper diagnosis concerning the patient. It would therefore be important to carry out further tests in Barbara to understand and define the exact problem facing the patient.

With all these matters understood, the most useful evidence I would consider is the test results of all various tests carried out on the patient. Though these results are not sufficient to make a final decision concerning Barbara, they would be useful in identifying the issue facing the patient. Barbara’s information that would be useful to this exercise would be personal history of Barbara as well as feedback from friends and colleagues (Diaz-Sotelo, 2016). Such information would help the clinician understand Barbara from another point of view. From the entire process, I have learnt more concerning psychological diagnosis of Barbara and proper ways of diagnosing such patients to come up with valid and reputable results.

References

            Díaz-Sotelo, O. (2016). Improving The Clinical Practice Guidelines: Why Include Psychological Evaluation And Intervention? Value in Health, 19(3), A294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2016.03.850

Gay Adoption Pros and Cons

Name

Institution

Date

Gay Adoption Pros and Cons

Discussion

Societal Views on Gay Adoption Cons

Gay parents adoption continues to be an issue that ignites much controversy, and there are different thoughts and feelings to the occurrence of this phenomenon occurring. There is a significant increase of gay parents in recent years, and they seek to have children through such means as adoption, foster care, and artificial insemination. Society, in general, has differing views towards gay parents’ adoption, and it is necessary therefore to consider the merits as well as the demerits of the practice (Cosis, 2014).The society has differing views on the issue, and there are those who oppose the occurrence as well as those who agree with it. Parental teachings have differing views to the occurrence, with some believing that the bond between the gay parents and their children is less strong than a biological bond. Parents also believe that such children from a gay family may face stigma and ridicule from the society especially in such places as school, church. They furthermore believe that such children are prone to trauma due to the rejection they experience from the society and are therefore more likely to succumb to psychological problems. Life experiences have also revealed that the community has not yet fully embraced the phenomenon of gay parenting.

It has also been perceived that children from adoptive parents are more open to correction as well as instruction. Parents of children who are adopted in gay families afflict less stress and place less expectation on their children and therefore they are more likely to encounter fewer levels of stress. One observation that is common is that gay parents are more apt to get more focused and self-reliant children as compared to normal children. Gay couple children have also been proven to experience more love, care, and concern as compared to children from other families and households. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize the importance of household regardless of sexual orientation (Mallon, 2014).Gay parent families are more likely to be close-knit, and they respect family more.

Societal Views to Gay Marriages Pros

There have been cases where gay parents have encountered discrimination as they seek to settle with their parents in new estates or surroundings. Adoptive children from gay parents have also been pulled out from school because it was discovered that parents are from the LGBT community. There have been many cases of children brought up in LGBT communities questioning their sexuality and being confused concerning the same (Appell, 2013).LGBT parents have found it hard to adapt to the healthy society. The current society is beginning to welcome gay parents as they realize that these people can also be responsible human beings and raise families. Furthermore, some support groups have managed to come up and support gay parents as they fight for recognition and the right to be able to adopt children. Many neighborhoods tolerate gay families, and they can easily integrate into such families without any complications. Some churches openly welcome gay families and allow them to attend service with them. Parents also are now more tolerant of gay couples as they support t their gay children who seek to start families by adopting children.

However, there have been developments in the sector especially since many states continue to implement laws concerning the legalization of gay marriages as well as permission of gay families to adopt babies and receive other state benefits. The modern society is gradually evolving, and gay parents continue to gain acceptance in many communities. The community recognizes that gay parents can be good and responsible parents and d many states allow gay parents to have custody or visitation rights if they are previously divorced. The state also continues to allow LGBT couples to adopt children through either state-run or governmental agencies.

Gay Parents and Child Custody Issues Pros

The sexual orientation of parents is no longer a factor in determining custody, adoption, visitation, and foster care. Many gay couples continue to apply for a chance to adopt children, and they have proven to be stable parents in a majority of instances. These parents have shown to be as effective as heterosexual parents in most aspects are. They have shown that good parenting is not dependent on the sexual orientation of the parents but much more on the behavioral traits, upbringing and beliefs of the parents (Harvey, 2014).A vast majority of children living with adopted gay parents live as well as those living in comfortable situations. It has also been proven that children from same-sex couples can be brought up as well and can live as well as normal children. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize that children from gay couples are as advantaged as other children from other couples. It is also needed to understand the importance of appreciating children from all upbringings. Gay adoptive parents have stable levels of physical and mental strengths as natural parents and it necessary to recognize their advantages as well as a strongpoint.

Courts have become more inclusive, and they can allow gay parents to claim custody to their children if they have the legal right. The LGBT community has continued to prove that responsible parenting does not rely on sexual orientation but more on the personality of the parent. They have won custody of children in many divorce cases and have gone further to be successful parents to these children. Furthermore, the law has been more accommodating to gay parents who are divorced and give a fair hearing to them. The legislation towards custody of children is continuing to change, and it is imminent that there will be provisions for gay parents to be able to adopt children without any hitches in the future. Courts continue to look at the best interests of the child, and if the gay parent is more suitable to stay with the child, then they will be given consideration where child custody is concerned.

Gay Parents and Child Custody Issues Cons

However, despite these recent developments, gay parents continue top face difficulty getting custody of children. Gay spouses are less likely to be given custody of children if the court finds them to be gay. Therefore, there is blatant discrimination in the court systems especially in the administration of laws concerning custody of children.Rohrbaugh reveals that gay parents are less likely to get custody of the children if they are discovered (Rohrbaugh,20130.The legal process does not favor the LGBT community, and they receive much bias especially in court judgments. The sexual orientation and gender identity are usually huge factors of consideration in the courts and many times they fail to win court cases about child custody due to their sexual orientation. It is, therefore, rare for gay parents to gain custody of their children in court, and they usually have to go through an exhausting legal process in most occurrences. Therefore, despite recent efforts to help bring about equality, there are still some hitches in such processes as child custody, even though in many cases these parents also deserve.

Critical Analysis

The Law and Gay Adoption of Children Pros

The adopted children are a sensitive issue in these marriages and it necessary to tend to the needs of these children. Up to two years ago, a majority of states upheld a ban on same-sex marriages as it was common belief that they were socially and scientifically inappropriate. However, according to recent ruling, at least 50 states are compelled to practice and allow same-sex marriage (Hicks&McDermott,2015).There have been a large number of legal cases that have continued to challenge restrictions on marriage of same-sex couples and these include such occurrences as the challenges towards the biological compatibility of same-sex marriages. Proof, however, has shown that children in same-sex marriages are in as stable relationships as those who are in heterosexual relationships. Therefore, there is no need for concern over the psychological children in same-sex marriages. However, it has been standard proof that children born in same-sex marriages are prone to mental issues. Both gay and single parents have been proven to roles as capable of raising children well thus motions concerning gay parent adoption are all unfounded. Research reveals that these a deviance across ruling states concerning same-sex couple adoption. National laws have in recent times given same-sex couple equal rights as heterosexual couples in issues related to child adoption. Though a number of political and religious groups have challenged the credibility of gay couples regarding parenting skills, proof has shown that they are capable of handling parenting responsibilities.

Many states have openly allowed gay parents to adopt children in recent times, and American adoption agencies continue to give the go ahead to such parents. A recent survey conducted in almost 3000 families revealed that about 175 of these were same-sex marriages. The outcomes from the study also showed that a majority of these were long-term stable marriages which were able to provide for the families emotionally (Averett, Nalavany&Ryan, 2012).physically as well as spiritually. Another survey conducted also showed varying results, and it came to this conclusion concerning gay and lesbian families. It revealed that children from such marriages are less likely to receive welfare from the state, as well as other benefits. It also showed that children from such marriages have a lower educational attainment compared to other families. It furthermore showed that such children are more likely to suffer from depression and succumb to other psychological issues. Additionally, statistics also show a higher probability of such children being more likely to cohabit and have a greater chance of being unemployed in the future. Revelations that are more shocking also reveal that these children are at an increased risk of suffering from sexual abuse from their caregivers.

Comparisons between children of gay families and those of similar biological parents reveal that there are vast differences in such matters as the number of sexual partners and the likeliness to develop homosexual tendencies. The legibility of this data is still under much scrutiny, and such organizations as the Family Research Council have been widely criticized for pointing out to all this evidence. Over the years, the cases children living with LGBT parents have increased tremendously, and the trend has continued to rise sharply (Cosis, 2014).Research has shown that the number of children in the United States living with gay parents ranges from 6 to 15 million. Furthermore, over 1.5 million LGBT couples are interesting in adopting children at some point in the future. The state of California has the highest number of LGBT families with over 16,000 adopted children.

The Law and Gay Adoption of Children Cons

Despite recent developments such as the legalization of gay marriages, many gay couples continue to face enormous legal hurdles as they look to adopt children. Appell describes some of the legal challenges that these couples continue to face in their quest to get foster children. Gay couples have to face lengthy legal procedures in their quest to adopt children and in many instances, they are often denied this right due to varying issues (Appell, 2013).The legal system has not passed legislation to accommodate gay parents, and therefore they continue to face difficulties in the legal process because of these implications. The adoption process for the LGBT is often complicated and in many cases, they are also unsuccessful in their quest to get legal assistance. Many have given up due to frustration in the judicial system, and others hold on to a very engaging process of law in their quest to adopt children.

A majority of the states do not have specific laws or court decisions concerning gay adoption. Eleven of the states have legally refused LGBT couples from adopting children, and 3 of these states have laws, which prohibit gays and lesbians from adopting children and taking them under foster care. However, 60 percent of the adoption agencies nationally accept applications from gays and lesbian (Appell, 2013).A recent poll revealed that 46 percent of Americans are divided on the issue as to whether gay and lesbian adoption illegitimate or not. Another independent research has shown that children brought up in same-sex households thrive as much as those from heterosexual upbringings do. These children are as well adjusted as those from normal childhoods, and they are more likely to follow similar development patterns.

Reflection

After reviewing all of these issues and careful analysis of the conditions mentioned in this research, I believe that gay adoption will have a huge role to play in the society. There are an enormous number of gay parents who are ready as well as wiling to adapt children, and with the societal changes and increased tolerance towards the LGBT community, there will be a future increase in the occurrence of gay adoptions. There is an increasing load of parentless children in foster homes all across the nations and the LGBT community is helping to fill that gap by taking in a huge number of these children and accommodating them. It has been proven that they are good parents and the recent shift in laws will favor the gay community tremendously. Therefore, I believe that it is a good occurrence and it should be encouraged within the society. It has been generally accepted that gay and lesbian couples cannot bring forth children without assistance (Harvey,2014).Gay couples have therefore revolutionized the entire family setup by becoming parents and furthermore creating families of their own by means of adoption. Social barriers concerning gay families have been lifted and they continue to be legitimately recognized as capable parents.

The growing numbers of LGBT families have proven the capability of LGBT couples to raise children well. These parents have shown motivation and commitment to raise their children well and they have provided stable homes to many children lacking families. The children of such parents have done considerable well and have been able to adapt mentally, socially, and academically similar to children from heterosexual households. These children have adapted well to the community and gone on to be successful. The children from such families have grown up to nurture tolerance and are more open-minded (Mallon, 2014).There are currently over 1 million LGBT parents raising children in the US and there have been minimal complications reported nationwide in these families. The conception of parenting has changed considerable and the society is more liberal to these parents. There are a large number of foster children nationally, and homosexuals have helped to ease the burden by taking in gay children and raising them in stable households. By doing so, the LGBT community has proven that good parenting.

References

Appell, A. (2013). Recent Developments in Lesbian and Gay Adoption Law. Adoption Quarterly, 7(1), 73-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/j145v07n01_06

Averett, P., Nalavany, B., & Ryan, S. (2012). An Evaluation of Gay/Lesbian and Heterosexual Adoption. Adoption Quarterly, 12(3-4), 129-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926750903313278

Brodzinsky, D. & Pertman, A. (2012). Adoption by Lesbians And Gay Men. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cosis, H. (2014). Winning against the Odds: Lesbian and Gay Fostering and Adoption. Adoption & Fostering, 22(4), 76-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857599802200414

Harvey, I. (2014). Book Review: Adoption, Fostering and Gay Fatherhood. Adoption & Fostering, 28(4), 81-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857590402800415

Hicks, S. & McDermott, J. (2015). Lesbian and Gay Fostering and Adoption. London: J. Kingsley.

Mallon, G. (2014). Gay Men Choosing Parenthood. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rohrbaugh, J. (2008). A Comprehensive Guide To Child Custody Evaluations. New York: Springer.

Psychology-Senior Seminar

Name

Institution

Date

Psychology-Senior Seminar

An eclectic therapist can be described as one who uses whatever means he sees as appropriate in the practice. it occurs when a therapist uses whatever form of treatment that he sees as appropriate to the practice, as well as that which can bring about the best possible results in the practice. The use of eclecticism is important because it enables therapists to understand the uniqueness of each psychological case and deal with it accordingly (Swan,2013).It helps therapists to be open minded and desist from following one strict approach or procedure in their practice. These therapists are able to deploy several elements from a range of therapeutic techniques and are therefore more effective in treating patients who have various differing conditions. It comprises of using techniques from different schools of therapy to help the patient. It is customized to meet the needs of particular patients and respond to them according to the situation.

The use of eclecticism is important because frequently psychologists are unable to find a solution to certain cases, and use of the formal approaches may fail to bring a solution to the issues faced. A benefit of using eclecticism is that it allows the therapist to construct their own special method and approach of dealing with certain psychological conditions in patients and finding a lasting solution (Swan, 2013).Therefore, therapists who are eclectic are able to effectively cure their patients. Integration of eclectic methods in psychological practices is usually more effective and offers longer lasting solutions to psychological conditions in patients. The condition is effective in treating various conditions and has proven effective in dealing with emotional as well as psychological issues affecting patients. Modern psychology has embraced the use of eclecticism and continues to benefit from the use of this concept.

References

            Swan, G. (2013). On the structure of eclecticism: Cluster analysis of eclectic behavior therapists. Professional Psychology, 10(5), 732-739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.10.5.732

Psychology-Assessment and Testing

Name

Date

Institution

Psychology-Assessment and Testing

The Barnum effect came about from the name of P.T Barnum, who believed that his sideshows as well as attractions had a personal appeal to everybody. He managed to coax audiences that his circus shows were unique, but in reality all, these shows were the same. It is a situation where people tend to be easily deceived when reading or hearing descriptions about themselves (Ernst&Resch, 2015).People are different and unique, and it is not accurate to give everyone the same description or that matching particular fittings. It also causes people to see connections when they are not necessarily true and validate certain concepts just because one believes that they are true. The condition is actually a bias, which causes a person to believe that certain aspects are real even though the evidence is not valid. The Barnum effect can have a huge influence on how students respond to personality assessments and psychoanalyticaltests, and they usually affect how they respond to various questions that are asked.

It can also influence w clinical officers perceive certain phenomenon in patients or make conclusions concerning certain conditions. It is caused by subjective validation, which is the tendency of the human brain to connect unrelated things because of the belief that there is already a connection (Ernst&Resch,2015).T he Barnum Effect can be reduced by being self analytical and developing information gathering capacities, as well as practicing how to use common sense at all times. When making decisions, it is important to first analyze all the available information before coming to a concrete solution. Furthermore, it is important to always be open minded and willing to listen to new ideas and concepts. The Barnum effect can largely influence human reasoning in all areas, and therefore people should learn how to embrace rationality and the power of reasoning at all times to avoid the Barnum effect.

References

Ernst, E. & Resch, K. (2015). The Barnum effect in complementary medicine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 3(3), 134-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0965-2299 (95)80052-2